Brain and spinal cord tumors are among the most common cancers of childhood, second only to leukemia. Today, more than half of the children with these tumors can be cured. Treatment of pediatric brain and spinal cord tumors presents a unique challenge and necessitates the collaboration of multiple specialists. Some children with brain tumors are cured with surgery alone, but frequently surgery, chemotherapy and radiation treatments must be used together to achieve the best outcome. Even for patients with incurable tumors, new treatments and therapies are available to lengthen and enhance a child’s quality of life.